Electric charge. Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). ... Electric charge is carried by subatomic particles.
The natural world provides precious few clues to the ubiquity of electromagnetism. The properties
of rubbed amber and the magnetism of lodestone were little more than curiosities until the 17th
century. The elucidation of the nature of lightning and the recognition of light as electromagnetic
radiation were even more recent. Yet our world is governed by electromagnetic interactions. All
chemical bonds, the strength and weakness of materials, light, the influences that form and control
living things are all aspects of electromagnetism. Indeed, only three other types of fundamental
force are known: the weak force, the strong force and gravity.
Of these forces the first two, which are purely nuclear forces, are effective only over distances
of less than 10-12!m - that is smaller than an atom. They are associated with radioactivity but
otherwise are of no consequence in chemistry and biology. Gravity is such a feeble force that it
matters only in interactions involving bodies of ‘astronomical’ mass and is negligible in interactions
between small things. Apart from the earth's gravitational pull, every force that you experience is
electromagnetic in nature.